Organ transplantation saves many lives every day all around the world. The procedure requires the collaboration of surgeons, physicians, immunologists, pathologists, and scientists. There have been major advances to overcome surgical, functional, and immunological hurdles that account for excellent short-term results. However, unfortunately, transplants do not last forever, and we need to better understand the process of graft deterioration. For instance, can we modulate the balance between the immune system fighting for destroying the kidney transplant and the inherent capacity of the kidney to survive by its reparative progenitor cells?