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Quantum Entanglement and Superposition: How Quantum Mechanics helps us understand our Universe

The Project

The aim of the project is to engage students in the fascinating world of quantum phenomena. Participants will explore the principles behind quantum entanglement and superposition from both theoretical and experimental viewpoints.

Quantum entanglement challenges classical intuitions about the nature of reality and holds significant implications for technology and fundamental physics. Entangled particles, even when separated by large distances, instantaneously influence each other's states. This phenomenon has potential applications in quantum computing, cryptography, and quantum communications. Understanding and harnessing quantum entanglement not only deepens our comprehension of quantum mechanics but also opens doors to revolutionary advancements in information processing and secure communication technologies.

Students will learn and experiment on the following topics:

  • Introduction to basic mathematical concepts behind quantum mechanics
  • Basics of computer programming (specifically in python).
  • Theoretical introduction to fundamental concepts of physics and quantum mechanics, including the superposition principle, the uncertainty principle, polarization, quantum entanglement, Bell Inequalities, etc.
  • Experimental exploration of the previously mentioned concepts using computer simulations of quantum systems.
  • Building the experimental set-up: the Mach–Zehnder interferometer. This experiment will allow participants to determine the relative phase shift variations between two collimated laser beams and test quantum properties like superposition or quantum entanglement.
  • Programming a computer simulation that allows you to reproduce the results of a Bell test.
  • Attending an advanced experimental demonstration of the Bell Inequalities using sources of entangled photons.
  • Analyzing the results obtained from the previous demonstration.
  • Presenting the results to the rest of the team.

During their time at ICCUB, students will also have the time to discover other quantum technologies and the research that is going on at the Institute of Cosmos Sciences.

We have designed the program for a diverse group of people, with different levels and backgrounds: for this reason, we don’t require any prior knowledge. However, if participants want to start to look into linear algebra (e.g. operations with vectors and matrices), coding with Python, or reading about quantum entanglement, your learning curve will be a little bit smoother.

Matching profiles


Students with an interest in physics, quantum mechanics, optics, lasers, computer programming, photonics, quantum technologies, mathematics.

Required materials

Laptop, writing materials.

Coordinators of the project

Bruno Juliá Díaz

  • Graduated in Physics from the University of Seville (1998) then moved to Salamanca to become PhD in (2003). 
  • Postdoctoral researcher at the University of Helsinki, CEA/Saclay and the University of Pittsburgh. 
  • In 2006, he joined the University of Barcelona with a Juan de la Cierva Fellowship and he obtained a Ramon y Cajal Research grant at ICFO and U. Barcelona from 2012 to 2017. 
  • Since 2021 Full Professor at the Department of Quantum Physics and Astrophysics. 
  • Currently coordinator of the Master in Quantum Science and Technology @Barcelona. 
Muntsa Guilleumas BIYSC ICCUB

Muntsa Guilleumas Morell

Involved in the field of Atomic Physics, Quantum liquids and gases Research

Associated researchers
Lidia Lozano BIYSC ICCUB

Lidia Lozano

  • Graduated in Physics from the Autonomous University of Madrid.
  • Master in Photonics from the Polytechnic University of Catalonia.
  • She is currently carrying out doctoral research at the University of Barcelona in the Quantum Communications group of the Faculty of Physics, part of the Institute of Cosmos Sciences (ICCUB).
  • Her research consists of the fabrication and characterization of singular photon sources based on quantum dots for implementation in the field of quantum technologies, particularly in quantum key distribution (QKD) applications.
Francesc Sabater ICCUB BIYSC

Francesc Sabater Garcia

  • Graduated in Physics from the University of Barcelona with a deep interest in many-body quantum physics and quantum computing.
  • Experienced in research, scientific outreach, and coding. 
  • He is currently a graduate research fellow at the Institute of Cosmos Sciences of the University of Barcelona (ICCUB), working on a theoretical study of the fermionic gases thanks to the MASTER+UB grant.
  • He is also pursuing a master’s degree in Quantum Science and Technology at Barcelona.

Raúl Lahoz Sanz

  • He graduated in Physics from the University of Zaragoza in 2022.
  • In 2023, he obtained his Master’s in Quantum Science and Technology from the University of Barcelona, where he specialised in the study of the experimental violation of Bell inequalities with entangled photons.
  • He is currently a predoctoral researcher at the Institute of Cosmos Sciences of the University of Barcelona, where he continues this line of research.
Hector Briongos BIYSC ICCUB

Héctor Briongos Merino

  • Graduated in BSc in Physics from Valladolid University.
  • He obtained his MSc in Quantum Science and Technology from Universitat de Barcelona.
  • He is currently a predoctoral researcher at ICCUB since 2024, working in the Many body quantum physics group.
  • Actual research is focused in Bose-Einstein condensates and atomtronic circuits.

Abel Rojo Francàs

  • Bachelor's degree in physics at the University of Barcelona.
  • Master of Nuclear Physics at the University of Sevilla, with a master thesis about one-dimensional quantum systems.
  • Predoctoral researcher at the Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), working in the quantum physics group of the University of Barcelona (UB) in few-particle systems.
The center

The ICCUB is a research Institute of the Universitat de Barcelona, the first-ranked university in Spain (Shanghai ranking 2023). Our institute is one of the few centers in the world focused on an interdisciplinary study of the Cosmos from different physics areas: cosmology, astrophysics, high-energy physics, gravitation, nuclear and atomic physics, instrumentation and quantum sciences and technologies.

Created in 2006, it brought together researchers from various departments at the UB Faculty of Physics, encouraging them to explore connections in their research and increasing their collaborations and synergies. Since then the Institute has significantly strengthened its research excellence and internationalization.